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Ag 101
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Glossary

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Biosecurity - System of procedures and other means to reduce or eliminate exposure of poultry flocks to any type of infectious agent, whether it be viral, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic in nature.

For more information on specifics of biosecurity systems, please visit the following links Exit EPA
Biosecurity for Poultry
Poultry Facility Biosecurity (PDF, 96.1KB)

Black-out House - houses that do not allow any natural light into the building.

Breeder - A bird that is utilized to produce offspring.

Broiler - Chicken, sometimes called fryers, reared primarily for meat production. Age to market weight is typically 6 to 8 weeks (5 to 8 pounds), and are the epitome of efficient meat production.

Brooding - Early period of growth when supplemental heat must be provided, due to the birds inability to generate enough body heat.

Cake Manure - Surface manure on top of litter, typically only a few inches deep.

Cooling - Using ventilation to prevent hens from becoming too hot.

Corn Belt - The area of the United States where corn is a principal cash crop, including Iowa, Indiana, most of Illinois, and parts of Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin.

Denitrification - The biochemical reduction of nitrate or nitrite to gaseous nitrogen, either as molecular nitrogen or as an oxide of nitrogen.

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Environmental Control - Temperature control in poultry barns.

Legume - Any of thousands of plant species that have seed pods that split along both sides when ripe. Some of the more common legumes used for human consumption are beans, lentils, peanuts, peas, and soybeans. Others, such as clover and alfalfa, are used as animal feed. Legumes have a unique ability to obtain much or all of their nitrogen requirements from symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

Liquid Egg - Contents of egg (white, yolk, or both) that have been removed and shipped as a product in bulk.

Litter - Substance applied to dirt or concrete flooring systems that is absorbent in nature, including: wood shavings, rice hulls, chopped straw, sand, sawdust, oat hulls, and several other materials.

Marketing - Increasing awareness of a product by advertising.

Mechanical Ventilation - The use of fans, either electric or pneumatic, to ventilate houses.

Molting - The process of shedding and then regrowing feathers in laying hens. It corresponds with a period of no egg laying.

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Natural Ventilation - Air circulation is provided by opening barn doors or windows and allowing the wind to draw through the barn.

Nitrification - The biochemical oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, predominantly by autotrophic bacteria.

Peak Egg Production - The point in a henís laying cycle where she will lay the highest percentage of eggs.

Poult - A baby turkey.

Pullet - A laying hen before it lays its first egg.

Tunnel Ventilation - Placement of large fans at end of building to draw air from one end to the other.

Ventilation - The circulation of air through a building in order to expel noxious air and admit clean, fresh air.

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