Skip common site navigation and headers
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Ag 101
Begin Hierarchical Links EPA Home > Ag Center > Ag 101 > Environmental Impacts > Ammonia End Hierarchical Links



"Ammonia-nitrogen" includes the ionized form (ammonium, NH4+) and the un-ionized form (ammonia, NH3). Ammonium is produced when microorganisms break down organic nitrogen products such as urea and proteins in manure. This decomposition occurs in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. In solution, ammonium is in chemical equilibrium with ammonia.

Ammonia exerts a direct biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) on the receiving water since dissolved oxygen is consumed as ammonia is oxidized. Moderate depressions of dissolved oxygen are associated with reduced species diversity, while more severe depressions can produce fish kills.

Additionally, ammonia can lead to eutrophication, or nutrient over-enrichment, of surface waters. While nutrients are necessary for a healthy ecosystem, the overabundance of nutrients (particularly nitrogen and phosphorus) can lead to nuisance algae blooms.

Pfiesteria often lives as a nontoxic predatory animal, becoming toxic in response to fish excretions or secretions (NCSU, 1998). While nutrient-enriched conditions are not required for toxic outbreaks to occur, excessive nutrient loadings can help create an environment rich in microbial prey and organic matter that Pfiesteria uses as a food supply. By increasing the concentration of Pfiesteria, nutrient loads increase the likelihood of a toxic outbreak (Citizens Pfiesteria Action Commission, 1997).

The Nitrogen Cycle

The degree of ammonia volatilization is dependent on the manure management system. For example, losses are greater when manure remains on the land surface rather than being incorporated into the soil, and are particularly high when the manure is spray irrigated onto land. Environmental conditions also affect the extent of volatilization. For example, losses are greater at higher pH levels, warmer temperatures and drier conditions, and in soils with low cation exchange capacity, such as sands. Losses are decreased by the presence of growing plants. (Follett, 1995)

Back ArrowBack to Environmental Impacts Menu


Begin Site Footer

EPA Home | Privacy and Security Notice | Contact Us