Cleaner Production Newsletter

No. 7
Fall 1993

The Newsletter of the UNEP IE/PAC network dedicated to promoting cleaner production. The preventive environmental strategy reconciling environmental protection and development.


Editorial: Cleaner Production Worldwide

I have had the honour to be involved with the UNEP Cleaner Production Programme ever since the days in 1989 when we tussled with the phrase "low-and non-waste technology" and ended up with the "Cleaner Production" theme.

The British Government hosted the launch of the Cleaner Production Programme at Canterbury in September 1990, and it was a pleasure to meet many people from all over the world at the two-yearly review meeting held in Paris in 1992. The follow-up meeting in 1994 should in my view be held in a developing country, and in a campus atmosphere more like Canterbury than Paris!! If readers overseas know of suitable settings where 200 to 400 people can live and work together for nearly a week then please let UNEP know: at least we should have a short-list and work on how to finance things after that.

As one of several British Government actions to follow-up Rio the British Prime Minister John Major announced a Technology Partnership Initiative at Rio. A conference to launch this was held in Birmingham close to the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution (Ironbridge in Coalbrookedale) 23-25 March 1993. The Prime Minister himself cam to launch the Initiative and it was a measure of the importance which UK attaches to the Cleaner Production Programme that the IE/PAC Director, Jacqueline Aloisi de Larderel was able to give a keynote address emphasizing the lesson learned from the Cleaner Production Programme.

It was also the occasion to launch a new publication - Cleaner Production Worldwide which will be described elsewhere in this issue. The examples given in the publication come from twelve different countries and I am sure that when you read them you will realize that similar, and perhaps even more appropriate examples can be found in every country of the world. Please let UNEP know the simple story about how a production process that you know created less pollution and as a result improved its profitability.

D. L. Pounder
Environmental Protection
Technology Advisor,
United Kingdom of the Environment, London

See Document Source

Inspecting the black liquor discharge from the Rakta pulp mill, Alexandria, Egypt, John H. Skinner, UNEP and Mohamed A. Tohamy, Managing Director, Rakta

Technology Transfer: Demonstrating Cleaner Production in African Countries

A recent Mission to Egypt is in the process of identifying opportunities for cleaner production at the RAKTA pulp and paper mill, the largest facility in the world making paper out of rice straw. Senegal has issued a report describing the financial requirements for cleaner production at the SOCOCIM cement facility. Zimbabwe and Ghana have identified pulp and paper and cement companies with an interest in cleaner production programs.

These projects were established at the October 1992 Ministerial Meeting on Cleaner Production hosted by UNEP IE/PAC. The purpose is to demonstrate the opportunities for and obstacles to cleaner production in developing countries. Pulp and paper production and cement production were selected because these industries are quite common in developing countries and development often requires expanded production in these sectors.

These demonstrations are intended to be catalytic in effort and bring together government and industry to deal with the technical, social, financial and institutional obstacles and opportunities for cleaner production. The projects are being carried out through a partnership involving representatives from the selected countries, the governments of the Netherlands and France, the Business Council for Sustainable Development, the International Chamber of Commerce and UNEP IE/PAC.

Importance Notice to ICPIC Users: UNEP IE/PAC Has Moved
See Page 2

United Nationals Environment

Industry and Environment
Programme Activity Centre

39-43 Quai Andre Citreon
75739 Paris Cedex 15 - France
TEL: 33(1) 44 37 14 50
TLX: 204997F
FAX: 33 (1) 44 37 14 74

Editor: G. Clark

Editorial Board: J. Aloisi de Larderel, O. El Kholy, K. Oldenburg, R. Glaser, D. Huisingh, D. Pounder, J. Kryger, K. Geiser, J. Salamitou, and A. Aspengren

The editor welcomes all news on cleaner production from readers. Please send to UNEP IE/PAC.

IE/PAC Cleaner Production Activities

Success for Cleaner Production Worldwide

The Programme's newest publication, Cleaner Production Worldwide has been immensely poplar. Each day brings more requests to IE/PAC for more copies from organizations all over the world.

Produced with the support of the government of the United Kingdom, the booklet aims to give concrete examples showing the variety of approaches that are possible and to stimulate readers to find similar cost-effective solutions. The applications range from high to low technology. They show examples from small to medium sized enterprises, large industrial companies, and from plants in rural locations to those in overcrowded and highly industrialized cities, in a variety of countries. They show how seriously the concept of cleaner production is being taken by some governments, industries and individuals. The case studies are from Singapore, Greece, Denmark, Indonesia, Netherlands, France, India, Poland, Austria, Sweden, the United States and the United Kingdom.

After seeing the publication, a number of organizations and firms have offered to supply their cleaner production success stories. If a sufficient number of them can be provided and funding secured, a Cleaner Production Worldwide, Volume II, will be produced. If you have or are aware of cleaner production success stories, please contact UNEP IE/PAC.

Important Notice to Icpic Users

New ICPIC (and OzonAction) Number: +33 (1) 45 79 40 59

The access number via SprintNet Packet Switching Network remains unchanged:

(3310) 7620 0604

The mailing address remains:

Industry and Environment
Programme Activity Centre
Tour Mirabeau
39-43 Quai Andre Citreon
75739 Paris CEDEX 15 France

The new telephone numbers are as follows:

Danish Government Funds Technical Publications

The Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs has given IE/PAC a grant of US$350,000 for the development of five industrial sector cleaner production booklets and two videos.

Due to the success of Cleaner Production Worldwide, it will be used as a model for these booklets. However, each will have more in-dept information on techniques pertinent to the industrial sector and an overview of how to operate equipment.

Covered in the series will be metal finishing, metal manufacturing, textile, food, and leather tanning. The estimated publication date of the guides is mid-1994.

NCPC Project Underway

Twenty-five proposals were received by UNIDO and IE/PAC from organizations around the world wishing to establish Centres during Phase I of this new project. The proposals will now undergo review. The selection of up to six Centres will be completed by the end of 1993. The Centres will begin operation in 1994.

Asia Productivity Organization Studies CP

Ten national experts whose collective goal is to find out how best to promote cleaner production among small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Asia, met in Seoul, Republic of Korea, in June 1993. They were there at the invitation of the Asia Productivity Organization (APO), who is sponsoring this CP research project on "Productivity and Environment."

The purpose of the project's First Coordination Meeting was to learn about each expert's initial research and to provide guidance for the second phase of research. Each national expert made a presentation and the group provided feedback during discussion sessions. The countries participating in the study are India, Japan, Nepal, Mongolia, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Hong Kong, and the Republics of Korea and China.

China's Cleaner Production Project Continues

This summer was the mid-point of the Preparation Phase of the Chinese National Environmental Protection Agency's Cleaner Production project which is being funded by a World Bank loan. The IE/PAC Cleaner Production Programme has had a substantial advisory role (to both the World Bank and NEPA) in the design and preparation of the project.

During the first two months of the preparation phase of the project, seven participating companies have identified a total number of 90 CP options. Fifty-four of these were estimated at costing less than $5000 to implement. The opportunities vary from small changes in operational procedures to replacement of process equipment. Early implementation of low- (or no-) cost options may significantly improve company profitability. Two companies have already documented economic benefits from implementing the low- and no-cost options since March 1993. The benefits at Beijing Brewery, for example, have been quantified at 530,000 RMB (approximately 95,000 US$) per month, while those at a Chemical Plant mount up to 20,000 RMB (approximately 5,500 US$) per month. The preparation phase of the Chinese CP project has already proven that implementing cleaner production in China will be a big commercial success.

See Document Source

Improper storage of raw materials. Proper storage and handling of raw materials improves efficiency and generates less waste.

See Document Source

Energy savings is also a part of cleaner production

A NEPA document "Using World Bank Loan Promoting Cleaner Production in China" provides background on the entire project and is available from IE/PAC.

The project concept came from Mr. Yoshikuni Ohnishi, Senior Research & Planning Officer, APO, Japan, after he participated in IE/PAC's October 1992 Ministerial Meeting and Second Senior Level Seminar on Cleaner Production. Professor Kunitoshi Sakurai, University of Tokyo and international Environmental Planning Center, then prepared a draft proposal. The Cleaner Production Programme provided comments on the draft and was invited to participate in the June coordination meeting in Seoul.

The Cleaner Production Programme has been invited to participate in the project's next meeting (late summer 1994) and will help disseminate the results of this important research project.

More CP Activities in Asia

Proceedings are available from the October 1992 seminar "Profitability of Clean Technologies in the Leather Tanning Industry" organized by AIT under the auspices of the Project on Industrial Pollution Control Applications for Small and Medium Scale Industries (IPCA). The seminar's objectives were to disseminate to tannery owners and managers the results of the research that was carried out the previous year on process modification and resource recovery in the tanning industry.

The three-year IPCA project was launched in coordination with Chulalongkorn University, the Industrial Works Department of the Thai Ministry of Industry, and Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft's South East Asia Programme Office to promote and implement sound environmental management through an innovative industry/academia/ government relationship. Each partner in the project focused on different industry services.

Chulalongkorn University selected the electroplating industry and held a seminar "Pollution Management Strategies for the Electroplating Industry" in June 1993 in Bangkok, Thailand. The proceedings are being prepared. Two videos are currently available about cleaner production in the electroplating field, "Application of Clean Technology in Small Electroplating Shop in Bangkok" and "Practical Pollution Prevention and Control Options for the Electroplating Industry."

For more information contact:

Ramon C. de Mesa
IPCA Project coordinator
Asian Institute of Technology
G.P.O. Box 2745, Bangkok, Thailand
TEL: +662 524 5388
FAX: +662 524 5390

PREPARE: Preventive Environmental Protection Approaches in Europe

PREPARE, a working group under the umbrella EUREKA project, was established to identify new projects in the areas of preventive production technologies and cleaner products. The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs is funding PREPARE activities for 1992-1994. The working group is composed of representatives from the participating countries. As of August 1993, these countries included: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

PREPARE's primary activities are to foster and oversee cleaner production demonstration projects in participating countries and to exchange information on the results. Since 1992 PREPARE has sponsored and organized various workshops with industry leaders, environmental specialists and researchers to share cleaner production experience.

In March 1993, a workshop was held in Germany on cleaner product development of electronic consumer goods. Future 1993 workshops will cover cleaner production in the fields of pharmaceutical/ fine chemicals, pulp and paper, and telecommunications. In 1994, workshops are being considered for the specific product groups in food processing, building materials, wood conservation, and textiles.

For more information contact:

PREPARE Secretary
Mr. M.R.M. Crul
TME/Institute for Applied Environmental Economics
Grote Marktstraat 24
2511 BJ Den Haag, Netherlands
TEL: +31 (70) 3464422
FAX: +31 (70) 3623469

News from Industries

Cleaner Production in the Pulp and Paper Industry

The Metsa Botnia pulp plant in Kaskinen (western Finland) produces up to 420,000 tons of pulp annually. The plant has reduced waste significantly over the past few years by phasing out bleached sulphite pulp. The last such pulp was produced at the end of 1991. Chlorine bleaching is supplanting sulfate bleaching at MB Kaskinen and efforts to eliminate both elemental chlorine and chlorine compounds are under way. Oxygen bleaching has started to replace chlorine bleaching.

Efforts focus on not wasting anything at the facility. Eventually the company envisions a closed water system. Currently, a number of pulping chemicals, including sodium hydroxide are completely recycled at the facility.

The company culture has truly adopted the cleaner production philosophy. As innovations are constantly being made in the facility, the company slogan "There is only one constant in the world: change" was adopted.

For more information contact:

MB Kaskinen Mill
SF-64260 Kaskinen, Finland
TEL: +358 (62) 19111
FAX: +358 (62) 19214

Aire And Calder Show the Way

The Aire and Calder Project is showing that simple cleaner production techniques can result in considerable savings across a spectrum of companies. The project, established in the catchment of the Aire and Calder rivers in the United Kingdom, was initiated by the Centre for Exploitation of Science and Technology (CEST). It has been financially supported by the UK government and by contributions made by the companies taking part.

An earlier CEST project revealed that companies' first efforts to address environmental concerns are to treat their effluents rather than minimize volume or strength. Companies were unconvinced that simple "housekeeping" measures could dramatically reduce their effluent problems. They also failed to appreciate that cleaner processes often provide other benefits in terms of improved product quality or greater efficiency.

NOTICE: Most of the articles in each issue of Cleaner Production are also in the Bulletin Section of the International Cleaner Production Clearinghouse (ICPIC). There you will find many more articles that, due to space limitations, we are unable to print in the newsletter. For more information on how to access ICPIC, contact UNEP IE/PAC.

Eleven companies were recruited for the new project and are contributing 50% of the consultancy costs themselves as well as considerable staff time resources. Over 200 options for improvement have been identified and many already implemented. As expected, many options are extremely simple and can be implemented almost immediately. "Tens of thousands" according to one participant, "simply by the turn of a valve." Another company identified 2.5% savings in water usage on the first day.

A year after the project began, participating companies are already reaping benefits. Most have identified savings worth tens of thousands of pounds annually. Coca-Cola, for example, believes it can save at least 1.6 million pounds (British sterling). Companies note that for every savings in cost there are reductions in emissions and raw material usage, which demonstrates that reducing environmental impacts saves money. Similar reductions in emissions by other firms in time will reduce pollution of the Aire and Calder and other rivers throughout the UK.

The project demonstrates the benefits of a systematic approach to cleaner production and waste minimization. Hopefully, given that many of the participating companies are subsidiaries of larger concerns, there is the potential for replication the cleaner production approach throughout these organizations.

For further information contact:

Dr Neil Johnson or Dr R. C. Whelan
5 Berners Road
London, N1 OPW
TEL: +71 (354) 9942
FAX: + 71 (354) 4301

Cleaner Products

A New Line of Cleaner Paints

A new product, ECOPAINT, from a line of water-based recyclable industrial coatings, has been developed. This product addresses the three major environmental concerns of the industrial paint user: volatile organic compound emissions, offensive ordours, and waste disposal. The new line of formulated with new resin technology, is water based, and contains low levels of organic solvents. The current maximum solvent content is less than 5%. Many formulations are available with solvent levels below 3% and materials completely free of solvent are being produced. The paint can be used with a variety of application techniques including conventional air spray and electrostatic methods.

The paint has been used in continental Europe for the past few years. A typical example is the Lista company, one of the largest office furniture manufacturers in Switzerland, painting over 1 million square meters of steel a year. Traditionally, Lista used conventional paint in addition to electrodeposition and powder methods.

The new water-based system was installed in 1989 with dramatic effects. Solvent emissions were reduced from 50,000 kilos per year to less than 2,000 kilos - a reduction of 96%! Paint waste disposal was reduced from 80 tons per year to 0. Denaturing and coagulation chemicals were reduced from 20 tons a year to 0. Paint savings of 35% were achieved. Total annual application costs were halved. In addition, the quality of the finished work was improved; corrosion resistance and all other physical properties were maintained, and operators were delighted with the cleanliness and lack of smell.

For more information contact:

Mr D F Webber
Marketing Manager
Kemira Coatings Limited
Argall Avenue
Leyton E10 7QA, United Kingdom


Reviews for these and other new cleaner production publications appear in the ICPIC Bulletin section.

Cleaner Production Worldwide

Contact: UNEP IE/PAC
39-43 Quai Andre Citroen
75739 Paris CEDEX 15, France
TEL: +33 (1) 44 37 14 50
FAX: +33 (1) 44 37 14 74

UNESCO Nature and Resources: Towards Cleaner Production Methods

Volume 28, Number 4, 1992
ISSN 0028-0844
Parthenon Publishers
Casteron Hall, Carnforth
Lancs LA6 2LA, United Kingdom

Our Planet: Cleaner Production Makes Money

Volume 5, Number 3 1993
ISSN 1013-7394
United Nations Environment Programme
PO Box 30552
Nairobi Kenya
TEL: +2542 230 800 or +2542 230 600
FAX: +2542 226 831
Telex: 22068 UNEP KE

See Document Source

Publication List

Contact: Department of Toxic Substances Control
Office of Pollution Prevention and Technology Development
Technology Clearinghouse
P.O. Box 806
Sacramento, California 95812-0806
United States
TEL: +1 (916) 322 3670

Waste Minimization: A Check List and Assessment Manual for the Metal Finishing Industry

Contact: The Metal Finishing Association Federation House
10 Vyse Street
Birmingham B18 61t, United Kingdom
TEL: +44 (21) 236 2657
FAX: +44 (21) 236 3921

Total Cost Assessment: Accelerating Industrial Pollution Prevention Through Innovative Project Financial Analysis

Contact: US Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
Pollution Prevention Division
401 M Street, SW
Washington, DC 20460, United States

"Pollution Prevention: Swedish Experiences" (video)

Contact: Mr Lars Silijebratt
University of Lund
Asumsgatan 38
S-275 22 Sjobo, Sweden

"Cleaner Technology - the way to a better environment" (video)

Contact: Danish Environmental Protection Agency
Cleaner Technology Department
Strandgade 14
DK-1401 Copenhagen K, Denmark
Phone: +45 3266 0100

Eco-Labeling: Sources of Information (in French)

Contact: Institut Bruxellois pour la
Gestion de l'Environnement
Division Information
Gulledelle 100
1200 - Bruxelles
TEL: +32 (2) 775 75 11

The Environment Management Handbook for Small Industry

Contact: Lisa Camilleri
Australian Chamber of Manufacturers
PO Box 1469N
Melbourne Victoria 3002, Australia
TEL: +61 (3) 628 5423
FAX: +61 (3) 628 5426

Subscription Information

This newsletter is published twice a year as a supplement to:

This publication was designed and produced by Thalia Stanley.

Cleaner Production is printed on recycled paper.

Activities and programmes reported in this newsletter are provided for information and do not necessarily represent the policy of UNEP.

Cleaner Production - No. 7 Fall 1993

Last Updated: January 26, 1996