2.1 Planning the Program. A comprehensive recycling program impacts all base organizations as they all generate solid waste. Therefore, it is imperative the recycling program receive support and commitment from all organizations on the installation.
Many areas have local or regional recycling programs. Joining existing or planned regional recycling programs is encouraged. When regional recycling programs are unavailable or unreasonably costly, the installation will need to develop its own recycling program.
Listed below are some of the planning tasks associated with implementing or improving a recycling program. The maturity of your recycling program will determine which task you begin with.
· Determine responsible/managing organization;
· Identify resources;
· Perform a waste stream profile;
· Identify potential markets;
· Determine method of operation (in-house or contract);
· Identify facilities, equipment, and vehicles;
· Determine collection and separation strategies;
· Educate base population; and
· Identify opportunities for expansion.
2.2 Program Responsibility. The installation commander has overall responsibility for implementing a recycling program. The program must comply with public law, Executive Orders, DoD and Air Force policies and regulations, as well as applicable state or local requirements (See 5.1 Legal Requirements).
2.3.1 Program Funding. Funds to support the start-up and operation of a recycling program will be obtained in accordance with AFI 32-7001, Environmental Budgeting, and AFI 32-7080, Pollution Prevention Program. Several of the available funding sources are:
· Pollution Prevention (PP) Funding can be used to cover start-up costs (e.g., purchase equipment, bins), recurring service costs and recycling contracts.
· Operations & Maintenance (O&M) Funding for refuse collection can be used when recycling requirements are integrated into the base solid waste management contract.
· Military Family Housing (MFH) Funds must be used for recycling program requirements that encompass MFH. Examples are the purchase of recycling containers for MFH units and contract costs for curbside pick-up.
2.3.2 Manpower. Another major resource needed to successfully operate a recycling program is manpower. The Air Force Manpower Standard (AFMS) only identifies one man-year for solid waste management and recycling in the core manpower requirements. This shortage has challenged program managers to become innovative in sourcing manpower.
There are a number of ways to obtain manning for recycling operations. Potential personnel sources are military, civilian, contract, federal and state prisoners, and volunteers. The manager must weigh various factors when deciding which labor source to employ. Military and permanent civilian personnel are applied against the Unit Manning Document (UMD), but military manpower does not have to be reimbursed by program revenues. Contract labor does not count toward the UMD, but is generally more expensive. Prison labor is inexpensive, but not always available and may require escorts. Volunteers, while usually enthusiastic, are not always consistent.
2.4 Waste Stream Profile. To establish an effective recycling program, an installation must first determine the types and volumes of recyclable materials generated on the installation. As a start, review your baseline study and the profile percentages provided in the Performance Work Statement software handbook from AFCESA (For more information, contact Mr. Gary Jacks, AFCESA/CESM, DSN 523-6190). Concentrate on the materials requiring recycling in accordance with AFI 32-7080. These items are paper, plastics, metals, glass, used oil, lead acid batteries, and tires. Some of these categories can be subcategorized further, for example:
· Paper (computer, office, newspaper, colored)
· Ferrous (steel and iron)
· Nonferrous (brass, aluminum, copper)
· Used beverage containers
This list is neither all inclusive nor meant to limit materials considered for recycling. A creative and enthusiastic program manager may identify additional materials available for recycling based upon local conditions or markets. Examples of other materials being recycled are wood, food waste, Christmas trees, toner cartridges, etc.
Where a baseline survey has been completed, information from this survey can be used to estimate the volume of material potentially available for recycling. If a detailed baseline survey is not available, other avenues will have to be used to estimate material types and volumes. These avenues may include visiting various facilities and visually inspecting trash receptacles, interviewing personnel, or using some standard estimates available from a variety of sources including the EPA. Universities and colleges can be an excellent source of baseline information, or may assist in performing a baseline survey.
2.5 Market Survey & Identification. The servicing DRMO is responsible for performing market research for all appropriated resourced material defined as recyclable. Program managers should contact DRMO to obtain current market value and market stability information. If no local markets can be determined, the DRMO's are required to seek assistance from the respective Defense Property Disposal Region in identifying other potential markets.
If an installation believes it can obtain better market prices than those provided by current DRMO contracts, they may wish to proceed with their own market identification. If the installation's survey indicates better prices can be obtained, provide this information to DRMO and request they upgrade contracts or, if all else fails, to terminate contracts for "convenience to the government." Another option is to obtain a waiver to direct sale appropriated material (See 2.9 Direct Sale of Recyclable Materials).
When market analyses are unavailable from DRMO, an installation must use its own resources to identify available markets for recyclable materials. Information on potential markets can be obtained from:
· The EPA;
· State Environmental Agency;
· Recycling organizations;
· Yellow pages under recycling or waste paper;
· Local newspapers;
· Municipal solid waste managers;
· Other base recycling managers;
· Local paper, aluminum, or cardboard manufacturers;
· Periodicals; and
· Other recyclers/generators in the area.
Potential buyers of recycled material should be queried regarding quantity requirements, acceptable levels of contamination, average price, delivery requirements, pickup availability, and equipment availability (e.g., will they provide a storage bin or trailer for hauling the material). This information is necessary to establish equipment, facility, vehicle, and material processing requirements. Examples of how these factors can effect the recycling program are:
· If a contractor wants glass delivered in original state, a crusher or
condenser may not be needed.
· When a larger quantity of material is needed before sale (i.e., glass), you may opt for a crusher to minimize storage requirements.
· Will the contractor pick-up the materials or will you need to transport as part of the sale? Do you or the contractor pay the freight costs?
· Your equipment and storage requirements will in-turn drive your facility square footage requirements.
2.6 Facilities, Equipment, & Vehicles. The recycling program selected by the installation is impacted by available facilities, equipment, and vehicles. For example, if the Facility Utilization Board determines square footage is unavailable to support recycling requirements, the program manager should program for a new facility or consider contract options. Equipment needs and storage space are the primary drivers for facility size.
2.6.1 Facilities. Facilities for a recycling center need not be complex. Typically the area consists of a material recovery facility (MRF), otherwise known as a recycling center, with a small office area. The MRF should be large enough to house the material processing equipment (magnetic separator, metal can "condenser", paper balers, etc.) and allow for material handling equipment maneuverability. The MRF may also provide some storage capability for materials that are subject to weather damage. MRFs of 4,000 to 6,000 square feet are typically required for programs in the first stage. As the recycling program grows, more space and more efficient material processing equipment may be acquired.
Adjacent to the MRF should be a paved marshaling yard surrounded by a privacy fence. The marshaling yard provides an area for loading equipment and trucks to operate and should include a ramp where forklifts can load commercial transport trailers. Thirty cubic yard transport trailers are also being used by some installations to provide additional storage space and to minimize the movement of processed materials once they have been prepared for shipment. Buyers may be willing to preposition road ready licensed trailers at the recycling facility for high volume items. In addition to the MRF, additional covered storage space may be required to prevent weather damage to materials waiting for shipment.
2.6.2 Equipment. The types, models, capabilities, and purposes of available recycling equipment are numerous. Equipment is available to accomplish or assist in collecting, compacting, baling, shredding, sorting and other tasks associated with processing material for recycling. Ease of use, simplicity, cost, and effectiveness of the equipment are important traits. When searching the market for equipment items that best fit your requirements, contact the manufacturer to obtain, names of companies, municipalities or other agencies now using the equipment item. Contact these entities and get their candid evaluation of the equipment, to include operating costs. Also, contact other base program managers and ask for their input. Established GSA contracts should be your initial source for equipment, but don't limit yourself to these contracts.
After equipment requirements are established, authorizations must be obtained and added to the shop TA (Table of Allowance). Changes to TAs are coordinated through the base logistics transportation office and approved by the MAJCOM. After TAs for equipment are approved, leasing is an option to acquire short term use of equipment.
184.108.40.206 Collection Containers. Containers are chosen based on the material to be collected, expected volume, collection strategy, and cost.
· MFH curbside collection containers can be a simple plastic bin (normally provided by the contractor for contract operated programs).
· Desk-top paper collection containers are typically small cardboard bins, located on the desk, or the plastic desk-side containers. A container should be located at all desks, copiers, fax machines, and printers.
· Drop-off collection containers are generally some type of dumpster (e.g., Dempsy dumpster) or compartmentalized trailer. There are a variety of styles and sizes. Some types are self-dumping containers which may help minimize processing time.
220.127.116.11 Balers. Balers are normally required to package cardboard and paper into more manageable bundles. Compacted items are less bulky and often command higher prices. Consider versatility of the make and model of the unit purchased. Balers can be either horizontal (self-load) or vertical stroke. The horizontal baler will cost more (total cost approximately $60-90,000), but is less labor intensive. An option for this model is a "fluffer" that is used to improve the compaction of paper. The vertical downstroke unit will cost less (total cost approximately $20,000) but is labor intensive. This unit can be considered for bailing of plastics and as a back-up in the event the horizontal baler is down for maintenance.
18.104.22.168 Crushers/Condensers. Crushers and condensers are typically used for aluminum and steel cans. Condensers, often referred to as a "cuber", compresses cans into a high density, low volume cube. Crushers simply crush individual cans. The model selected should be based upon the market preference and transportation costs. Crushers are also used for glass.
22.214.171.124 Shredders/Sorters. Shredders reduce the bulk of many materials (e.g., cans, paper, and plastic). A paper shredder may be warranted if your installation processes large quantities of "Privacy Act" or "For Official Use Only" paper (check with your installation Information Management section to determine the appropriate level of protection and methods of destruction in accordance with AFIs 37-131 and 37-132). Before purchasing a paper shredder, check with Information Management for possible resources already on base. Sorters are used to separate metals. A simple magnetic sorter separates metal, such as steel and aluminum cans. When obtaining these pieces of equipment, self-loading or conveyer type units should be considered since they are less labor intensive.
126.96.36.199 Conveyors. Conveyors come in an assortment of sizes and can be used in conjunction with other equipment items, such as a horizontal baler, or they can be used individually for material sorting. These items can range in price from a couple of thousand dollars for a simple conveyor to upwards of $65,000 for a material sorting conveyor.
188.8.131.52 Material Handling Equipment. Equipment to load and handle the recyclables is required. Types of equipment may include: front-end loaders (e.g. Bobcat loader with forklift, grapple hook, and bucket attachment), fork lifts, pallet jacks, and trailers, etc.
184.108.40.206 Other Equipment. Based on waste stream analysis and market demand, other equipment items may be considered; for example, drum crushers, oil filter crushers, aerosol can puncturers, perforators, etc.
2.6.3 Vehicles. Vehicle needs will be determined by the level of the recycling operation. Small operations can usually be supported using existing base vehicles while most intermediate level operations require substantial vehicle support. When base assets are not available to support recycling activities, the recycling program may require dedicated vehicles and equipment. Vehicle needs, depending on the level of operation, can include a front-end loader, flatbed truck, etc.
After vehicle requirements are established, authorizations must be obtained and added to the shop TA. Changes to TAs are coordinated through the base logistics transportation office and approved by the MAJCOM. After TAs for vehicles are approved, leasing is an option to acquire short term use of vehicles.
2.7 Collection & Separation Strategies.
2.7.1 Collection Strategies. The choice of collection strategies has considerable impact on both level of participation and program costs. The easier it is for the customer to participate in the program, the greater the level of participation.
220.127.116.11 Drop-off. The drop-off collection method typically consists of placing multiple collection bins in a centralized location, often the recycling center, where participants bring their recyclables. Participation can be increased by placing additional bins in strategic locations throughout the base (e.g., a newspaper collection bin near the commissary). Participants should be required to sort their material and place it in appropriate bins. A less desirable and more labor intensive option is allow participants to bring their material to the recycling center for sorting.
· Advantages: This collection method is usually the least expensive collection option. Equipment and manpower costs are minimized. Persons that voluntarily drop off recyclables tend to properly sort items. Drop off collection can be used alone or in conjunction with other collection methods. This is an excellent startup method.
· Disadvantages: Participation levels are usually lower since participants bear the burden of collecting and delivering recyclables to the collection center. Recyclables may be commingled or mixed with trash if bins are unattended. If participation is mandatory, recyclables are unlikely to be properly sorted. The area may also become untidy if bin overflow is allowed.
18.104.22.168 Facility Pick-up. In-house or contract personnel, on a scheduled basis, will collect recyclable materials from base facilities. Typically, this pick-up encompasses the centrally located containers where individual facility occupants have transferred the materials. Materials often include paper, cardboard, toner cartridges, aluminum cans, and computer paper.
· Advantages: There will be greater participation and greater quantity and types of materials collected. This method is also more customer friendly.
· Disadvantages: Increased manpower and container requirements result in increased cost.
22.214.171.124 MFH Curbside Pick-up. Similar to trash collection, recyclables are picked up at MFH units. Participants set recyclables out on collection days. Recyclables can be collected together and sorted at the recycling center, or participants may be required to separate their materials prior to curbside pick-up. Bins should be provided to the participants to facilitate uniformity and ensure ease of pickup. Curbside pick-up can be used in conjunction with drop off collection to achieve maximum collection rates. Recyclables should be picked-up the same day as the refuse. This action provides greater customer convenience and participation. Also, same day pick-up of refuse and recyclables may ease the surveillance requirements from the additional Quality Assurance Evaluation (QAE) tasking.
· Advantages: This collection method typically has the highest rate of participation since it requires only minimum effort on the participant's part. MFH resident's only set recyclables out as they would their trash.
· Disadvantages: Collection costs are increased.
126.96.36.199 Contractor. Using a contractor for collection of recyclables is similar to using a contractor for refuse collection. It may be possible to modify your existing refuse collection contract to include recycling requirements. You may also want to include in the contract the operation of the MRF if there is a shortage of in-house manpower. The contract can provide incentives, such as the contractor keeping the material sales proceeds, for the contractor to minimize costs and maximize collection.
· Advantages: Use of contract recycling can minimize start-up, manpower, and facility costs (less capital investment). The program can be tailored to meet the specific needs of the base. The base may continue to receive recycling proceeds.
· Disadvantages: There will be an additional contract management responsibility. This method is typically more expensive which results in less recycling proceeds to the installations.
188.8.131.52 Combination. It is common practice to use a combination of the above collection strategies to maximize participation and material collection with the most efficient operation.
2.7.2 Separation Methods. Material separation can occur at the generating source, at the drop-off containers, or at the material recovery facility. Choosing where to separate the materials will have an effect on the program strategy and costs. Separation is done manually or mechanically by ferrous/non-ferrous separators.
2.8 Procedures for DRMO Material Sales. Once the recyclable materials are sorted and prepared for market, it is time to process the necessary paperwork for a sale. DRMO is responsible for selling all appropriated resourced recyclable materials. It is their responsibility to process the material for sale and obtain current market prices.
2.8.1 Turn-in and Accountability Procedures. To ensure funds from sales managed by DRMO are received, the installation must provide DRMO with properly completed DD Form 1348-1, turn-in documents. If the DD Form 1348-1 is inaccurately completed or lacks information, proceeds generated by the sale will generally be deposited to the general account of the US Treasury. Reversals/recovery of funds deposited to the general account are unlikely. The critical information needed on the DD Form 1348-1 with respect to the installation recycling fund cite consists of four parts:
· A two digit service identification code (SIC) -- 57 for AF;
· Recycling Budget Clearing Account Code (BCAN) -- obtained from Accounting and Finance;
· Appropriation Limitation identifier -- 8900 for AF; and
· Fiscal station number -- installation specific identifier, obtained from Accounting and Finance.
Also, the recycling manager, or his designated representative, must include on the DD Form 1348-1 the following statement of certification accompanied with his/her signature:
"I certify that this material meets all applicable qualifications of the DoD RRRP and that no munitions list/strategic items requiring demil are present. The following is a valid RRRP fund site: (installation RRRP account fund site)"
To ensure the installation receives the correct amount of funds from the sale of recyclables, the recycling program manager must track the delivery and sale of recyclables. NOTE: Sale information is available from DRMS Form 1427 and DRMO's computerized tracking system. As a minimum, document the following for each transaction:
· Date of turn-in;
· Item description (including weight);
· DD Form 1348-1;
· Date and price of sale;
· Date and amount of distribution received by installation; and
· Total proceeds.
2.9 Direct Sale of Recyclable Materials. If requested by the appropriate organization, the recycling manager can direct sell all recyclable materials not acquired with appropriated funds. These materials include items collected from organizations such as the Commissary, Base Exchange, or the base Services Squadron. The recycling manager has unilateral authority to direct sell those recyclables collected from MFH. When direct selling any of these items, the recycling manager must keep accurate accountability of all materials, to include types, weights, proceeds received, and where the materials were generated (e.g., AAFES, DeCA). If appropriated funded resources collected, processed, or handled these materials, these proceeds must be used to cover appropriated fund costs (See 2.10 Distribution of Proceeds).
Direct sale of recyclable material should be handled similar to other installation sales, such as firewood and Christmas trees. Sales should be coordinated with, and supported by, the installation contracting office.
Other situations may arise where the recycling manager may direct sell appropriated resourced recyclable materials. However, to do so, a waiver must be obtained from Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service (DRMS).
2.9.1 Direct Sale Waiver. If an installation believes current DRMO contract prices are not competitive with current market prices or the proceed return time does not support program expenses, the installation may opt to request a waiver to direct sell appropriated resourced materials. This waiver could result in quicker return of proceeds and allow the RRRP manager to meet program expenses.
NOTE: If an installation chooses to execute its recycling program by using a contractor, and as part of the contract the contractor returns the proceeds from the sale of the recyclables to the installation (i.e., "funds change hands"), it is considered a direct sale of appropriated resource materials and a waiver from DRMS is needed. A waiver is not needed if the contractor keeps the proceeds to offset the total contract cost as negotiated at contract award.
The established DRMS procedures (sent to MAJCOM/CEVs 16 Mar 95) for submitting a waiver request to direct sell appropriated resourced materials is as follows (clarifying remarks/suggestions are italicized):
(1)Submit the request to your MAJCOM who will in-turn endorse it with a recommendation for approval/disapproval. The MAJCOM will return the endorsed request to the installation for their submittal to the servicing DRMO. The request must contain the following information:
A The past year's quantities generated, by requested commodity, at DRMO obtained prices. (Include the distance to the DRMO, the time between delivery and actual payment [time is money], and any other relevant costs.)
B The past year's quantities generated, by requested commodity, at complete market value (net of overhead and transportation).
C Written acknowledgment of the requirements and provisions of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Environmental Security) Memorandum of
28 Sep 93, subject: Policy for DoD Recycling. The installation must note in particular the following:
C.1 The requirement that sales of recyclable materials be in accordance with Section 203 of the Federal Property and Administration Act of 1949;
C.2 The requirement for installations selling directly to maintain operational records for fiscal year reporting requirements, review and program evaluation purposes. This is to include, but is not limited to, quantities generated and sold, prices obtained, copies of successful contracts, potential buyer mailing list; and
C.3 The definition of eligible recyclable materials and applicable exclusions. (From DUSD(ES) Memo, 28 Sep 93: Recyclable materials. Includes materials diverted from the solid waste stream and the beneficial use of such materials. Recycling is further defined as the result of a series of activities by which materials that would become or otherwise remain waste, are diverted from the solid waste stream by collection, separation and processing and are used as raw materials in the manufacture of goods sold or distributed in commerce or the reuse of such materials a substitutes for goods made of virgin materials. The term also includes, for purposes of this policy document, scrap, (including ferrous and nonferrous scrap) and, specifically, firing range expended brass and mixed metals gleaned from firing range cleanup which do not require demilitarization.)
D Written acknowledgment that any approval granted is subject to change or termination if the Office of the Secretary of Defense's direct sale policy is changed or terminated.
E Failure to comply with the above requirements is justification to withhold the granting of requested direct sales waivers or the cancellation of existing waivers.
(2)DRMOs will confirm the validity of commodities, quantities generated, prices, or any relevant changes as reflected on DRMO records and forward request to the DRMS (Attn: DRMS-MD). DRMOs will also include a recommendation as to the granting of the requested direct sales waiver.
(3)DRMS will review the request and approve or disapprove as appropriate. DRMS will then notify the requesting installation, the MAJCOM, and the effected DRMO, with an information copy to HQ DLA (Attn: MMSC). When there subsequently is a dispute between the DRMS recommendation and the MAJCOM's position, the request will be forwarded to HQ DLA for assistance.
(4)Approvals will be granted for a maximum period of six months. As part of the consideration of any waiver renewal, the installation will submit to the DRMS (Attn: DRMS-MD) the following data:
A Commodities generated and successfully sold;
B Time period involved;
C Relevant proceeds obtained; and
D Types of sales contracts utilized.
(5)Direct sales waiver renewals will be granted only when it can be clearly demonstrated that the applicable DRMO and DRMS sales activities can not duplicate or exceed the same efficiency and cost effectiveness as that of the generating activity.
As noted above, accurate and complete accountability is a must.
2.10 Distribution of Proceeds. Recycling proceeds returned to the installation from the DRMS and from direct sales of appropriated funded material must first be used to recover appropriated fund costs incurred managing and operating the qualified recycling program to include but not limited to: manpower, equipment, utility, and real property costs. After appropriated costs are reimbursed and there remains revenues from that fiscal years sales, then the installation commander may use up to 50 percent of the remaining sale proceeds for pollution abatement, energy conservation, and occupational safety and health activities. These activities may be funded up to 50 percent of the cost of a minor construction project. Any remaining proceeds may be transferred to the Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Fund to be used for morale, welfare, and recreation activities.
2.11 Household Hazardous Materials. Hazardous materials such as pesticides, cleaners, and similar products are common in most households. Unfortunately, many of these materials end up in the household trash when they are no longer needed. Even though household hazardous waste is specifically exempt from federal regulations, the local landfill is not the best disposal method. Household hazardous waste is of particular concern on a military installation due to the constant movement of personnel and their families. As a result, large quantities of unused, potentially hazardous materials are tossed in with the household trash. A much better alternative is a "drop and swap" program for unused materials. A central location is established where departing personnel can drop off their unwanted materials, and incoming personnel can pick-up items they need. In essence, unwanted hazardous materials are recycled back to the consumer for use. It is up to the installation to determine where the "drop and swap" is located and the hours of operation. Accept only those materials in their original containers and having legible labels. The base should be prepared to deal with materials that cannot be redistributed and must be disposed of as waste. It is important that all state and local regulations be considered before initiating a program of this sort.