Eliminating Ozone Depleting Substances in the Production of Refrigerators Turkey 1993 Full scale



PEG Profilo Elektrikli Gerecler Sanayii A.S. (PEG), located in Cerkezkoy, employs 3,200 people in its manufacturing plants. The household refrigerator production factory employs 900 of these people. PEG manufactures the following:

24 models of household refrigerators
3 models of CFC-12 compressors
3 models of HFC-134a compressors
7 models of washing machines
6 models of dishwashers, and
11 models of ovens

Two different types of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used in the manufacture of refrigerators. The first is CFC-ll, which is used as a blowing agent in producing polyurethane insulating foam in the refrigerator. The other is CFC-12, that is used as a refrigerant in the cooling circuit of the refrigerator.

Cleaner Production Principle

New technology; Material substitution

Cleaner Production Application

In compliance with the Montreal Protocol on Ozone-Depleting Substances, PEG reduced CFC-ll used in producing polyurethane insulating foam by 50% in 1992. PEG subsequently initiated a CFC Phase-out Project to supplement elimination of CFCs from its refrigerators. This resulted in the establishment of the CFC Alternatives Research Commission in 1993. The CFC Phase-out project was composed of three phases, as follows:

Providing for product development using CFC-free substances, and purchase of equipment and technical support necessary for testing new CFC-free refrigerators;
Fully eliminating the use of CFC-ll and CFC-12 at PEG by installing new equipment necessary for commercial production of the new CFC-free refrigerators; and
Fully eliminating the use of CFC-12 at PEG service throughout Turkey by installing new equipment.

The commission focused on the following substances as CFC alternatives.

Cyclopentane replacing CFC-ll as a blowing agent in polyurethane insulating foam. Cyclopentane was selected because it has a suitable boiling point and thermal conductivity and contains no ozone depleting substances. Furthermore, cyclopentane is available at competitive prices.
HFC-134a replacing CFC-12 as a refrigerant in refrigerator cooling circuits. HFC-134a has thermodynamic properties similar to those of CFC-12, and has contains no ozone depleting substances. HFC-134a is nonflammable. HFC-134a has been accepted as an improvement over CFCs with regard to depletion of ozone.
The replacement of CFC-ll and CFC-12 by, respectively, cyclopentane and HFC-134a was undertaken. This resulted in successful development of a new line of refrigerators and compressors using the alternative refrigerant and blowing agent, in line with the project goals. This effort was supported by technical assistance for: width="12" height="12" hspace="15"> width="12" height="12" hspace="15"> width="12" height="12" hspace="15">
Redesign of the different refrigerator and compressor models;
Construction, prototype manufacturing, short and long-term testing of refrigerators and compressors, and
Training on manufacturing, maintenance and quality control of the new products.

Environmental and Economic Benefits

The replacements for CFCs result in environmental benefits with regard to elimination of ozone-depleting substances; and
The new PEG CFC-free products will have a market advantage with the global phaseout of CFCs.


None reported.


Mr. Kenan Bayram - Quality Assurance Department Manager PEG
Profilo lektrikli Gerecler Sanayii A.S.
59501 Cerkezkoy-Tekirdag
Tel : + 90 282 726 73 00; Fax : + 90 282 726 53 96; Tlx: 31539 Peg Tr

Review Status

This case study was submitted to UNEP IE by ECOMED, Agency for Sustainable Development of the Mediterranean, Via di Porta, Lavernale, Roma, Italy. It was reviewed by UNEP IE November, 1995.

Subsequently the case study has undergone a technical review by Dr Prasad Modak at Environmental Management Centre, Mumbai, India, in September 1998.