Chemical Substitution

References from reviewed literature:

In [2] J.S. Badin and H.E. Lowitt, The U.S. Textile Industry: An Energy Perspective, DOE/RL/01830/T-56, prepared by Energetics, Inc. for Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington, 1988.

Copper-free dyes for producing green shades in 100% cotton fabric [2] [35]. Reduced toxicity (metal content) of spent dye bath and washwater.

References from reviewed literature:

In [2] F.C.Cook, "Environmentally Friendly: More than a Slogan for Dyes", Textile World, November 1990, pp 49-54.

Shift to fiber-reactive dyes can often provide pollution prevention opportunity since, according to reference [1], these dyes tend to have higher exhaustion rates, leaving less unused dye in the spent-dye solution discharge.