Water Conservation Measures in Dyeing Equipment
Reference  lists the main findings of a water care project
carried out between 1976 and 1981 in the Danish, Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian textile industries. The original reference is:
Asnes H., Reduction of Water Consumption in the Textile Industry, IFATTC Conference, London, 1984.
- Batch Operation 
- Winch Dyeing: by dropping the dye bath and avoiding overflow
rinsing, water consumption could be reduced by 25%;
- High and Low: by replacing the overflow with Pressure Jet Dyeing
batchwise rinsing, water consumption can be cut by approximately
- Beam Dyeing: about 60% of water consumption may be reduced by
preventing overflow during soaking and rinsing. Automatic controls
proved to be quite economical with a payback period of about four
- Jig Dyeing: A wide range of reductions (ranging from 15% to 79%)
were possible by switching form the practice of overflow to stepwise
rinsing. According to the author, laboratory scale trials using
the spray technique for rinsing, were also effective;
- Cheese Dyeing: a reduction of around 70% was possible following
- Continuous Operation 
- A 20%-30% saving was realized by introducing automatic water stops.
Counter-current washing proved to be the most effective method.
Horizontal washing equipment delivered the same performance as
two vertical washing machines, using the same amount of water.