The liquor ratio differs greatly between machine types. Using low-liquor ratio equipment, the weight of water used to dye a given weight of goods is reduced. As stated by Smith, washing efficiency of many types of low-liquor ratio dyeing machines, such as jigs, is poor due to mechanical factors, (such as bath and fabric turnover rate, contacts, liquor ratio, turbulence, mechanical considerations and physical/flow characteristics). According to Smith, most water in dyeing operations is used for washing, not in the dyebath itself. Thus, low-liquor ratio and reduced total water use do not always correlate as closely as one might expect . (See Table 8 for water used and liquor ratio for different equipment).
The advantages reported in the bibliography consulted for low-liquor ratio dyeing equipment are:
References from reviewed literature:
In : J.S. Badin and H.E. Lowitt, The U.S. Textile Industry: An Energy Perspective, DOE/RL/01830/T-56, prepared by Energetics, Inc. for Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington, 1988
B. Smith, A Workbook for Pollution Prevention by Source Reduction in Textile Wet Processing, Pollution Prevention Pays Program, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Raleigh, N.C., 1988