Liquid Runway Deicer
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Cryotech E36® Liquid Runway Deicer represents a new generation of
deicers. E36 LRD is a potassium acetate-based runway deicer that was
approved for use in the U.S. in 1992. Because of its high performance and
low environmental effect, the use of E36 has expanded rapidly at airports
and military bases. More and more, airport maintenance personnel are
called upon to keep runways clean and safe without harming the
environment. With legislative and environmental pressures mounting,
airports are changing deicing practices. E36 LRD has set the standard for
runway deicers for years to come.
E36 has been shown to be safe
for use at air force bases utilizing the B-2 Bomber. Per testing by
Northrop Grumman, "All test specimens were unaffected by the exposure of
Cryotech E36 runway anti-icing fluid."
For a brief summary of E36's benefits, application information, and
product specifications, please see the E36 Fact
E36 LRD is a high performance,
environmentally responsible alternative to glycol and urea based products.
Experienced users make the following observations about E36 LRD.
- E36 LRD has excellent anti-icing and deicing characteristics.
- E36 LRD is faster than other runway deicers.
- E36 LRD is active at low temperatures (-20 deg F and below).
- E36 LRD works longer; requiring fewer applications.
- E36 LRD is less slippery than glycol-based products.
- E36 LRD does not contain urea or glycol.
- E36 LRD has a lower Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) than glycol-based
- E36 LRD biodegrades at low temperatures.
- E36 LRD biodegrades to carbon dioxide and water.
Safe for Aircraft
- E36 LRD is authorized for use at airports by FAA Advisory Circular
- E36 LRD meets material compatibility requirements of AMS 1435.
Potential Customer ProfileCommercial airports and military bases that
are concerned with the quality of storm water run-off and require a high
performance deicer can benefit from E36 LRD. With increased concerns of deicing
chemicals reaching receiving waters, airport managers consider E36 LRD an
important tool in managing environmental issues associated with storm water
run-off. If storm water drains directly from runways or taxiways into a body of
water, NPDES discharge permits require regular monitoring of run-off to
determine certain characteristics, including BOD and contaminants. Because of
low BOD and high performance, E36 LRD can help acheive storm water run-off
objectives. The U.S. EPA recently gave notice to airports to evaluate the use of
potassium acetate (E36 LRD) in lieu of ethylene glycol and/or urea. (Federal Register, 09/29/95)
E36 LRD meets FAA
approved specification SAE AMS 1435, "Fluid, Generic, Deicing/Anti-icing,
Runways and Taxiways".
- Composition:.....50% by weight potassium acetate in water plus corrosion
- Appearance:.....Clear, colorless, mobile liquid, free from matter in
(May be dyed blue at customer request)
- Density:.....1.28 g/cc (10.68 lb/cf) at 20 deg C (68 deg F)
- pH:.....11.0 +/- 0.5
- Viscosity:.....10 cp maximum at 20 deg C (68 deg F) and 20 cp maximum at 0
deg C (32 deg F)
- Freezing Point:.....-60 deg C (-76 deg F)
- Water Miscibility:.....Complete and does not separate in storage
- Specific Gravity:......1.25 - 1.30 at 20 deg C
- Storage:......No special storage required (do not use galvanized
- Packaging:......55 gallon drum; 265 gallon totes, bulk
orders: 4 drums, 1 tote, 4400 gallons bulk
See product MSDS for
- E36 LRD may be used as an anti-icer or as a deicer. It should be applied
at ambient temperature - not heated. Suggested application rates follow, but
should be used as a starting point, since local conditions will have
significant affect on fluid requirements.
- The most efficient use of E36 LRD is as an anti-icer, pre-treating the
pavement before precipitation actually starts. A high traction film then
exists to prevent adhesion of ice and snow, which can then be mechanically
removed. Uniform coverage is important.
- Experience suggests that E36 LRD, as a deicer, is best applied in bands
(4"-6" [10-15 cm] centers), thereby reducing dilution from melting, allowing
the fluid to penetrate to the surface and break the bonds of ice and snow
prior to mechanical removal.
- Loose snow is not a good medium for movement of E36 LRD. Therefore,
clearing loose snow prior to application, or using high penetration nozzles
will enhance performance.
- E36 LRD penetrates to the surface more readily through hard-packed snow,
thin ice, or ice with natural cracks and flaws. Generally, the longer ice
remains on the surface, the stronger it bonds, and therefore, the more
difficult it is to remove.
- E36 LRD is effective as a prewetting agent.
- ADVISORY - E36 LRD does not separate at low temperatures, as is common
with glycol-based mixtures, and therefore, does not require heated storage.
Separation in storage has also been reported by airports using substitute
potassium acetate deicers.
- Because of E36 LRD's long lasting effect, over application may result in
dry blowing snow sticking to the wetted pavement surface.
- Storage - No special storage required (do not use galvanized materials).
Product Application RatesThe amount of E36 LRD to be applied is
determined by both the surface temperature and the quality and quantity of ice.
Conditions vary, therefore, these application rates are suggested starting
points to be adjusted locally as required.
PrewettingE36 LRD will speed the effect of solid deicers and abrasives.
E36 LRD is applied at the spreader outlet, typically for prewetting rates of 5%
to 15% by weight of solid material.
- Apply.....1.25 gallons per 100 lbs of deicer or sand (130 g/kg of deicer
Anti-icingE36 LRD is most effective when applied uniformly to pavement
surface before freezing precipitation. Prompt mechanical removal of snow and ice
is necessary to reduce fluid dilution. Re-application may be necessary if snow
and ice begin to bond to the surface.
- Apply.....0.5 gallons/1000 f² (25 g/m²)
DeicingE36 LRD is an effective deicer when applied in a banded pattern
to penetrate to pavement surface and break the bond of ice and snow. The amount
of deicer needed varies with temperature and thickness of snow or ice, but
should be in the following ranges.
- Apply on thin ice.....1.0 gallon/1000 f² (50 g/m²)
- Apply on 1" (2.5 cm) ice.....3.0 gallons/1000 f² (150 g/m²)
Tests with E36 LRD show it readily biodegrades at low temperatures and has a
low oxygen demand (BOD) when compared to glycol-based deicers. Toxicity tests
rate E36 LRD "relatively harmless" to aquatic life, the most favorable
classification used by the environmental community. And the fluid contains
neither ammonia nor nitrogen. Therefore, E36 LRD is considered much safer for
the environment than either glycol or urea.
As suggested by the FAA, the following general summary of environmental and
hazard information is provided. Additional detail is available in the MSDS.
Complete test report documentation is available upon request from Cryotech.
BiodegradabilityThe chemical oxygen demand (COD) of E36 LRD was
determined using EPA Method 410.1
The biological oxygen demand
(BOD) of E36 LRD was determined using the EPA approved dilution method (Hach).
- COD (TOD) = 0.30 gm O2/gm
- BOD20 @ 2 deg C = 0.30 gm O2/gm
- BOD20 @ 20 deg C = 0.30 gm O2/gm
- BOD5 @ 20 deg C = 0.14 gm O2/gm
Aquatic ToxicityCurrent EPA methods were used for measuring the acute
and chronic toxicity of E36 LRD. According to the US Fish and Wildlife scale,
material with a LC50 greater than 1000 mg/L is "relatively harmless", which is
the least toxic material classification.
- Fathead minnow 7-day chronic.....LC50 > 1500 mg/L
- Rainbow trout 96-hour acute.....LC50 > 2100 mg/L
- Daphnia magna 48-hour acute.....LC50 > 3000 mg/L
- Hazardous Waste & Shipping
E36 LRD is not a listed hazardous
waste. The RCRA regulations define hazardous waste in two ways: a listed
hazardous waste or a characteristic hazardous waste. A waste may be considered
hazardous if it exhibits any one of four characteristics - corrosivity,
toxicity, ignitability, or reactivity. A waste is corrosive under RCRA if it
has a pH less than or equal to 2.0 or greater than or equal to 12.5. E36 LRD
is not RCRA corrosive, toxic, ignitable or reactive; therefore, it is not a
characteristic hazardous waste.
- No Hazardous Components
E36 LRD contains no hazardous components
as described by SARA Title III, Section 302. Nor is E36 LRD designated as a
hazardous chemical by the U.S. Department of Transportation. E36 LRD does not
- Spill Handling Procedures
E36 LRD is not expected to present
environmental problems. If product should spill, it should be absorbed and the
resulting waste disposed of in a sanitary landfill unless state or local
regulations prohibit such disposal.
- Container and Product Disposal
Based on information available to
Cryotech Deicing Technology, E36 LRD is neither listed as a hazardous waste,
nor does it exhibit any of the characteristics that would cause it to be
classified or disposed of as a RCRA hazardous waste. Empty containers and
product unsuitable for normal deicing operations may be disposed of in a
sanitary landfill unless state or local regulations prohibit such disposal.
Compatibility With Electrical ComponentsE36
LRD is an ionized solution and is more conductive than water. Users are advised
to take precautions to prevent solutions containing E36 LRD from entering
subsurface conduits and electrical components. E36 is compatible with most
materials, but exceptions occur such as with galvanized metals. Do not use E36
with galvanized materials.
When selecting equipment to transport, store, and apply potassium acetate
runway deicers, the following guidelines should be considered:
- Stainless steel is preferred, but not required.
- Avoid brass and cast aluminum, and cast iron.
- Positive displacement pumps are preferred.
- Avoid large bore, low head (pressure) centrifugal pumps.
- Stainless and carbon steel, PVC, polyethylene, and rubber are okay.
- Avoid galvanized metal piping and fittings.
- Pipe joints should be joined by welding or with compression fittings.
- Avoid threaded joints or use high quality pipe thread sealants.
- Butyl rubber, ethylene propylene rubber (EPM, EPDM), isoprene, natural
- Nitrile (Buna N), hypalon, neoprene rubber generally acceptable.
- Avoid butadiene, flourocarbon rubber, fluorosilicon, polyacrylate,
polyurethane, SBR rubber (Buna S), silicon rubber.
- Shipping and storage in stainless steel, fiberglass, or polyethylene
containers is preferred.
- Carbon and alloy steel tanks and containers may be used if clean and rust
- Tanks must be strong enough to hold 10.68 pounds per gallon of E36, which
is 28% heavier than water.
- External surfaces of equipment used to dispense E36 LRD should be
routinely rinsed with warm water to prevent a build-up of the fluid and other
contaminants associated with winter airport operations. A thorough washing
with warm soapy water is recommended as equipment is removed from service
after the deicing season.
- Diluted E36 LRD biodegrades naturally when exposed to air and other
contaminants. This process quickens in warmer temperatures. Frequent rinsings
will prevent any build-up that could result in formations of unsightly
biological growth and superficial staining/corrosion.
- Undiluted E36 LRD kept in closed containers with minimal exposure to air
does not degrade and may be stored indefinitely.
Cryotech E36® LRD is certified to comply with SAE AMS 1435. Fluids meeting
this specification are unique to each manufacturer and may be adversely affected
by mixing with other deicing/anti-icing fluids. Therefore, Cryotech recommends
that E36 LRD not be mixed with other manufacturer's products.
E36 LRD is shipped to customers in the following units:
- Rail Tank Cars.....18,000 gallons (68,000 liters)
- Tank Trucks.....4,400 gallons (16,600 liters)
- Isotanks.....4,000 gallons (15,000 liters)
- Totes.....265 gallons (1,000 liters)
- Drums.....55 gallons (200 liters)
The FAA has established standards for liquid runway deicers. At this writing,
SAE AMS 1435 covers all liquid deicing/anti-icing compounds including E36. This
specification identifies material and environmental properties, and establishes
minimum standards for material compatibility and performance. E36 meets or
exceeds all requirements of this standard as indicated below. Current
certifications are supplied at customer request.
| Top | Home | Description | Advantages | Customer Profile | Specifications | Application | Properties | Environmental |
| Friction | Compatibility | Advisory | Shipments | Guide Specification | Certification | Technical Bulletins |
For information contact:Cryotech Deicing Technology
Fort Madison, Iowa, USA 52627
Tel: (319) 372-6012 or (800)
Fax: (319) 372-2662
Copyright Cryotech Deicing Technology