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In a joint research effort, the U.S. EPA and APS Materials, Inc., have investigated the use of a limonene cleaner to replace TCA and methanol. APS Materials, Inc., is a metal finishing company that plasma coats parts for use in hostile environments. In the biomedical parts division, cobalt/molybdenum and titanium parts are coated with a porous titanium layer for use as orthopedic implants. APS Materials has converted to the terpene cleaner as a result of the investigation. Cleaning efficacy is excellent with a slight increase in bonding strength for the limonene-cleaned parts. Changing to the aqueous system required the addition of rinse and dry stations. The new system cost $1,800 to install with annual operating expenses of $850. Net savings are $4,800 per year.

Brown, Lisa M., Johnny Springer, and Matthew Bower. 1992. Chemical Substitution for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane and Methanol In An Industrial Cleaning Operation, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 29:179-188, Elsevier Science Publishers.

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Last Update: 29 December 1998