"Defense leadership in environmental protection is critical to our national security. We will continue to provide leadership in balancing environmental protection and national security. Climate change is no exception. Already we are a Federal leader in reducing our emissions of greenhouse gases... Through energy conservation innovations, the Department has reduced its total energy consumption by 36 percent since 1990."
— Sherri W. Goodman
Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Environmental Security)
Climate Change and Ozone Protection are Important to the Military
The Department of Defense (DoD) believes that supporting climate change initiatives, protecting stratospheric ozone, and preserving military sustainability, operations, and readiness are mutually supportive goals. Climate change and ozone protection are important to DoD for three reasons:
Climate Change Impacts National Security
Changes in the global climate and depletion of the Earth’s stratospheric ozone protection layers can have national and global implications, particularly on environmental, political, social, and economic structures. Rising sea levels, desertification, extreme storms, loss of farmland and food sources, salinization of fresh water, and other physical and health-related effects can lead to increases in civil strife, the number of environmental refugees, and conflicts among nations.
As climate change affects the structures mentioned above, DoD is working to understand where and under what circumstances environmental issues may contribute to economic, political, and social instability and conflict. DoD’s international environmental cooperation efforts promote democracy, trust, and environmental stewardship while strengthening national defense. DoD works cooperatively with foreign militaries to promote regional stability and integrate environmental goals into defense operations.
Protecting the Environment and Maintaining Readiness
DoD has a longstanding commitment to protect the environment while maintaining military readiness. Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions both improves environmental quality and enhances military readiness. This win-win situation occurs when GHG emissions are reduced by improving operational practices and the energy efficiency of the military’s aircraft, ships, and combat vehicles.
Improving the fuel efficiency of tactical equipment reduces training costs by reducing DoD’s fuel costs. These savings are then available for maintaining military readiness. Improving fuel efficiency also makes operational sense—by using fuel-efficient equipment, less fuel must be transported for operations, thereby enhancing mobility and reducing logistical requirements. In order to achieve these benefits, DoD is funding research for a wide range of technologies.
DoD has also been a leader in protecting the stratospheric ozone layer from the damaging effects of ozone depleting substances (ODS) while maintaining military readiness. This effort contributes to protecting the global climate system since many ODS are also greenhouse gases. Under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, a timetable for the phaseout of ODS was established. DoD has put into effect an aggressive phaseout program and has played an important role in implementing the Montreal Protocol.
Increasing Energy Efficiency
Reducing GHG emissions and increasing energy efficiency makes good business sense. Technological and process-oriented pollution prevention initiatives lead to significant efficiencies and cost savings. Executive Order 13123 of 1999 requires DoD to achieve a 35 percent reduction in energy use by 2010. DoD is the largest consumer of energy in the Federal government. DoD’s energy strategy includes enhanced energy management and efforts to reduce waste and the release of global warming potential gases.
DoD’s energy management efforts have focused on three primary areas—reducing GHG emissions, improving weapons systems and technologies, and increasing energy efficiency at our facilities. This report gives DoD the opportunity to share its successes and vision for the future. The following pages highlight important progress and outline key initiatives.
Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions
DoD directs one of the largest and most complex environmental programs in the world, managing a global infrastructure comprised of:
The U.S. government consumes approximately 2 percent of the nation’s energy, with DoD consuming approximately 75 percent of that total. Of DoD’s total energy use in fiscal year 1996 (FY96), operations and training consumed 58 percent and facilities and non-tactical vehicles consumed 42 percent. DoD is particularly focused on improving the energy efficiency of its facilities and non-tactical vehicles.
DoD has taken a strong leadership role in emissions accounting by undertaking a comprehensive inventory of its own emissions. Between 1990 and 1996, DoD reduced its total GHG emissions by 20 percent, from gross emissions of 24.46 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) in 1990 to gross emissions of 19.45 MMTCE in 1996.* These reductions are primarily the result of decreased energy-related emissions: operations and training energy use declined 24 percent and installations and logistics energy use declined 13 percent. In addition, waste-related emissions, which comprise roughly 5 percent of DoD’s emissions, declined almost 45 percent between 1990 and 1996 due to smaller base populations and increased recycling.
*The unit million metric tons of carbon equivalent is commonly used to express emissions of greenhouse gases when there is more than one gas to be estimated. This is because one ton of carbon dioxide (CO2), for example, is not equivalent to one ton of methane (CH4) or nitrous oxide (N2O) in terms of its contribution to global warming.
Reductions in DoD’s Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Developing Technologies and Improving Weapons Systems
DoD has made the development of more efficient weapons systems and technologies a priority in its efforts to improve readiness and reduce costs. In June 1999, DoD charged its Defense Science Board Task Force with identifying technologies that improve the fuel efficiency of the full range of weapons platforms (land, sea, and air), with an emphasis on those with the greatest potential for implementation within the next 10 years. Each technology is evaluated in terms of operations, logistics, cost, and environmental impacts. The following accounts illustrate some of the initiatives that DoD is championing.
21st Century Truck Initiative
On April 21, 2000, Vice President Al Gore announced a new program called the 21st Century Truck Initiative. The U.S. Army is a partner in this endeavor with the U.S. Departments of Energy and Transportation, the U.S. EPA, and the U.S. trucking industry. The program aims to improve fuel efficiency, boost safety, and cut costs and emissions in the nation’s military and civilian truck fleets.
The Army owns more than 250,000 tactical trucks and purchases trucks for all branches of the U.S. Armed Forces. These trucks travel 823 million miles annually at a cost of $91 million. The Army spends $110 to $112 million each year on fuel for the entire fleet, and estimates consumption of two million gallons of fuel daily while other ground systems use 147 million gallons annually.
The research objectives of the 21st Century Truck Initiative are to:
The Army estimates that 60 to 70 percent of the lifecycle costs of its tactical trucks are devoted to operation and maintenance. By making these improvements, military trucks will be able to travel greater distances without refueling, saving some of the $2 billion that is required each year to operate military vehicles.
Navy Hydrodynamic Technologies
The U.S. Navy is a recognized leader in the development of hydrodynamic technologies for improved ship power and fuel savings. Stern flap and bulbous bow are two technologies that have demonstrated cost and fuel savings. The application of the stern flap to naval destroyers is a recent innovation. The stern flap originated from stern, or transom, wedge research conducted in the 1980s. Stern wedges or flaps have been installed on naval destroyers to create a vertical lift at the transom and to modify the distribution of pressure on the after portion of the hull. The Navy reports better fuel efficiency, higher top speed, and reduced emissions. The cost of implementation, $170,000, can be recouped within approximately one to two years.
The Navy also found that refitting a bulbous bow on a DDG-51 Class Destroyer results in tremendous fuel savings from reduced ship resistance. Although the original funding for this project was $3.4 million, savings for 50 ships in the DDG-51 Class are estimated at $200 million. The bulbous bow concept has been well received, and as a result of the great potential for cost savings, bow designs for future ships are being reexamined. The success of the bulbous bow retrofit has resulted in the Navy aggressively pursuing spin-off technologies with the potential for similar fuel savings.
USS Bonhomme Richard
TheUSS Bonhomme Richard (LHD-6), a large-deck multipurpose amphibious assault ship, avoided consuming 2,245,000 gallons of fuel oil and saved $1.8 million in 1999. The ship uses a three-pronged approach to conservation which combines proactive maintenance, modifying standard operating procedures, and making innovative equipment changes. Electronic boiler controls were installed with the assistance of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, culminating in a 10 percent reduction in fuel consumption through increased boiler efficiency.
The U.S. Navy is strongly committed to effective energy management. Aboard the USS Bonhomme Richard, the ship’s Energy Conservation Manager pursues energy conservation by making it an "all hands" effort. Throughout 1999, personnel were encouraged to improvise and seek creative ways to improve good engineering practices while steaming the propulsion plant more efficiently. While at anchor and periodically underway, the ship steamed with one boiler in operation, conserving nearly 25 percent of the fuel typically consumed during these types of operations. The Navy also implemented standard operating procedures to secure standby equipment at the earliest opportunity after special operations, resulting in increased fuel savings and reduced electrical demand.
Innovative Propulsion Systems
Initiated in 1988, DoD’s Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) Program is an effort to increase propulsion capability for airplanes, helicopters, and other tactical military equipment. The use of these technologies decreases the amount of fuel burned and lowers costs and emissions. IHPTET’s objectives are being accomplished through a combination of decreased specific fuel consumption and lighter engine weight. DoD’s efforts are applicable across the full spectrum of gas turbine engine applications, including turbofan/turbojet, turboprop/turboshaft, and expendable engines. The Program combines the expertise of the U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Force; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the Defense Advanced Project Research Agency; and industry. The IHPTET Program could help DoD achieve significant reductions in energy usage.
The goal of IHPTET is to double propulsion system capability, reducing fuel consumption by 40 percent and reducing production and maintenance costs by 35 percent. A key feature of these turbine engines is the reduction of fuel consumption in components through improved efficiency and compression system pressure ratios. For example, the effective application of ceramic composite materials technology can eliminate the need for active turbine cooling, thus increasing overall engine performance while simultaneously reducing turbine weight by more than 50 percent—resulting in substantial fuel savings derived from reduced weapon system weight.
The goals that DoD has set are increasingly aggressive. There are three phases of the IHPTET Program: Phase I was completed in 1991, Phase II was completed in 2000, and Phase III is scheduled for completion in 2005.
By combining the synergistic effects of advanced materials development, innovative structural designs, and improved aerothermodynamics, the IHPTET Program will be applied to alternative engine designs to improve performance, decrease fuel consumption, and increase engine operability.
* Improvements are measured against 1987 state-of-the-art technology baselines.
Alternative Fuel and Electric Vehicles
Fossil fuels emit GHGs, degrading air quality. As technology advances, alternative fuel sources such as biodiesel, ethanol, methanol, natural gas, and fuel cells are becoming valid substitutes. DoD is moving towards a vehicle fleet, including both tactical and non-tactical vehicles, increasingly powered by alternative fuels. The Department owns 10,000 alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs)—one of the largest fleets in the world. DoD is demonstrating the ability for an organization to incorporate the use of these vehicles while maintaining performance and efficiency.
The F-117 stealth fighter sits between alternative fuel vehicles at McClellan Air Force Base, California. All three vehicles have something in common—they all use "composite" versus traditional metal materials in their construction, making them lighter and more energy efficient.
Improving Energy Efficiency at DoD Facilities
DoD recognizes that conserving energy not only saves money, but results in substantial environmental benefits. DoD is on track to reach the goal of a 35 percent reduction in facility energy use by 2010. Energy conservation efforts are reducing the emission of air pollutants and greenhouse gases.
The metric DoD uses to measure progress each year is energy per square foot of buildings and facilities. In FY99, the Department used 108,565 British thermal units (Btus) per gross square foot, a reduction of 20 percent compared to the FY85 baseline.
DoD is aggressively pursuing lifecycle initiatives that will provide additional energy reductions while still meeting mission requirements. The Department has an active program to identify and procure energy efficient and environmentally preferable products. In FY99, DoD greatly increased the use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts and utility incentive agreements—saving nearly 1.7 trillion Btus per year. DoD also employs the principles of sustainable design to ensure that its new facilities minimize the use of resources and reduce harmful effects on the environment. The following stories illustrate the many successes DoD has had and the goals the Department is working toward for the future.
Federal and DoD Facility Energy Use Reductions
Fort Hood, Texas
Fort Hood, Texas, is the U.S. Army’s premier installation for training and deploying heavy forces and has made great strides toward improving energy efficiency. Fort Hood’s Pollution Prevention Program is designed to improve cost savings and decrease emissions by preventing generation of solid waste, wastewater, and air emissions through source reduction, reuse, and recycling.
Fort Hood installed a parking lot solar lighting and an active daylighting system. The active daylighting system virtually eliminates all daytime electric lighting, equaling more than 1.4 billion Btus of renewable energy. In the future, each unit is expected to generate power equivalent to 600 to 800 fluorescent light bulbs, saving almost $20,000 each year. Just two panels of the parking lot solar lighting system produce 800 kilowatt hours (kWhs) per year, eliminating more than one ton of emissions. Combined, the two projects have saved approximately 2.5 billion Btus and $103,000. Fort Hood also installed vapor recovery systems on fuel tanks.
Fort Hood uses compressed natural gas as an alternative fuel for administrative vehicles. Although Fort Hood’s primary goal in using CNG is air pollution reduction, CNG is also an average of eight cents less than an equivalent gallon of gasoline. Conversion to CNG requires a one-time modification to the vehicles to allow for dual-fuel operation, plus construction of a new refueling station. Fort Hood only orders new administrative vehicles that have dual-fuel capacity. By the end of 1999, nearly 30 percent of Fort Hood’s vehicles had this capacity.
By being among the first to use new technologies in pollution prevention, Fort Hood’s challenge is to go beyond compliance and consistently develop and incorporate new technologies into base life. Many of the technologies are transferable and, by sharing ideas and methodologies, Fort Hood has made it easier for other installations to practice environmental stewardship.
Fort Hood is committed to supporting the Army’s environmental vision while carrying out the mission of national defense. By making the Army s environmental strategy part of daily business, Fort Hood has become a leader in the effort for environmental stewardship.
Solar and Other Renewable Energy Sources
Cost-effective application of solar and other renewable energy sources is an important priority for DoD. The "Million Solar Roofs Initiative" is a commitment to use renewable solar energy wherever it makes sound economic sense. DoD’s plans include using over 3,000 solar applications on buildings by FY00, and 1,000 applications of photovoltaic technology on non-building systems.
Eliminating the Use of Ozone Depleting Substances
"DoD and its people have won more EPA awards for protecting the ozone layer than any other organization in the world…Leadership and technological innovation are at the heart of our success. We believe the very same leadership and technological innovation will help us meet the current worldwide challenge to combat global climate change."— Sherri W. Goodman
Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Environmental Security)
DoD has made it a priority to reduce the use and emissions of ODS. These reductions are accomplished through the use of "environmentally friendly" alternatives to ODS and emissions controls where applicable. ODS destroy the strato-spheric ozone layer that shields Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation and can contribute to climate change through global warming.
DoD has worked to reduce its total energy use since the 1970s, and has
achieved a 36 percent reduction since 1990.
The Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Environmental Security)
For additional general information about DoD environmental programs and initiatives, contact us at:
3400 Defense Pentagon (Room 3E792)
Washington, DC, 20301-3400
To view more information on DoD and Climate Change, refer to our website:
To view information about The Importance of the Military Organisations in Stratospheric Ozone Protection and Climate Protection, refer to a link from the DENIX home page