Federal Non-Nuclear Energy Research & Development Act of 1974, P.L. 93-577.
Under this act, the DOE is authorized to "advance energy conservation technologies, includingbut not limited toproductive use of waste, including garbage, sewage, agricultural waste, and industrial waste heat; [and] reuse and recycling of material and consumer products." This includes demonstrations of practical applications of all potentially beneficial energy sources and utilization technologies.
Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-502).
This law mandated certain requirements, incentives, and authorities for the Federal laboratories. It established technology transfer as the responsibility of all Federal laboratory scientists and engineers, established a principle of royalty sharing for Federal inventors, empowered agencies to allow their laboratories to enter into Cooperative R&D Agreements (CRADAs) and to negotiate licensing agreements for inventions, and allowed current and former Federal employees to participate in commercial development where there was no conflict of interest.
The starting material for a process. In a biotechnology-related process, this could be wood, switchgrass, waste paper, agricultural residues, corn, soybeans, and so forth (Milne, Brennan, and Glenn 1990).
Feedstock Energy (see Energy Consumption).
Fluorine (F2) is the most reactive of the halogen elements, forming compounds with all of the elements except the inert gases. Metals characteristically form non-volatile ionic fluorides. Hydrogen fluoride is a solvent and an intermediate in chemical syntheses such as the alkylation of isoparafins. Enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride a key factor for economical production of nuclear energy. In addition, fluorides are used as additives to toothpaste, non-sticking surfaces for cookware, and in the production of aluminum where aluminum oxide is dissolved in cryolite (a fluoride compound) and then reduced electrically from the melt, resulting in pure aluminum (Pauling 1954, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 1997b).
Fly ash is left behind as a solid waste product during coal combustion. For decades, fly ash has been mixed with Portland cement for use in construction projects. The unique physical and chemical properties of coal fly ash allow the concrete to be denser and made with less water, producing a strong and durable concrete. Substituting coal fly ash for Portland cement reduces CO2 emissions by 0.79 tons for every ton of Portland cement replaced. Of the 54.8 million tons of coal ash produced in the United States in 1994, about 6.7 million tons were used in cement and concrete products (American Coal Ash Association, undated). The major source of coal has shifted to more western states in recent years, where the ash content of the fuel is lower than in eastern coal, averaging 8-12 percent. (A good rule of thumb is the average ash content of coal is 10 percent.) At the same time, the Btu content of the western coal is lower, so more is used than previously to provide a given level of energy. According one source, combustion waste from a typical 500-MW power plant generates about 1.63x109 lbs/yr of ash. For example, in a power plant operating 330 days per year,
24 hr/day * 330 day/yr * 500,000 kW = 3.96x109kwh/yr
Therefore, 1.63/3.96 = 0.4 lb/kWhr (for ash from a coal-fired power plant)
Food and Kindred Products (SIC 20).
The U.S. food and kindred products sector consists of 49 sub-industries. It is a highly diversified sector with thousands of different food products manufactured. Processing facilities range from small plants to large industrial units. Relevant statistics are shown in Table F-1.
A recent study states that over 400x109 pounds of raw agricultural commodities are harvested annually in the United States and less than 50 percent of these materials end up as useable products. Typical levels of waste include 5.3x109 pounds of molasses, 4.9x109 pounds of citrus wastes, and 5.3x109 pounds of corn. The proportion of waste to product in the food industry is relatively exceeding unity in some cases. Typical moisture content is between 45 percent and 75 percent (e.g., pumice). Many of the wastes produced are high chemical oxygen demand wastewaters from cooking and washing steps or high-moisture solids produced during processing that have relatively little market value. The quantity of solid waste generated the industry is also substantial and disposal costs can be as much as $3.30/ton (DOE 1994b). A typical large brewery produces about 57x106 lbs/yr of spent grain solids with a total energy content of 5 x 1011 Btu/yr. Because of environmental regulations and high disposal costs, new methods are sought to minimize the wastes. Conversion of waste effluents to marketable products is being achieved through the use of new enzyme systems that can detect valuable substances in the wastes. Microbes are also being used to convert food and residues into organic acids and other food ingredients (Cornell University 1997).
Forest Products (SIC 24 and 26).
This sector includes industries engaged in the manufacture of pulps from wood, other cellulose fibers, paper and paper board, converted products from paper and paper board, and lumber and other wood products. It represents about 8 percent of the production of manufactured goods in the United States (American Forest and Paper Association 1997). primary-products sector, which is capital and waste intensive, manufactures wood pulp, printing and writing papers, sanitary tissue, industrial paper, and paper boards. The more labor-intensive converting sector uses primary products to manufacture items such as coated papers, bags, boxes, and envelopes. The largest mills with capacities of at least 350,000 tons per year account for approximately half of the total U.S. production. The costs for the environmental aspects of producing a ton of pulp, paper, and paperboard rose from $4 in 1970 to $22 in 1992, and continues to increase (American Forest and Paper Association 1997). Relevant statistics for the industry are shown in Table F-2.
Fossil Fuels (see Energy).
Foundries. (SIC 332, Iron and Steel Foundries; SIC 336, Nonferrous Foundries [Castings]).
Factories or work areas in which metal or glass casting takes place.
Freon 11, 12, 22, and 113 (see also Chlorofluorocarbons).
Freon is the "trade name" for a group of fluorocarbon and chlorofluorocarbon products used until recently in refrigeration and air conditioning (Morris 1992).
Like a battery, a fuel cell produces electricity by way of a chemical reaction without combustion. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging and will continue to produce electrical energy as long as the fuel (hydrogen) and oxidant (oxygen) are supplied to the electrodes. Other fuels may also be used in fuel cells, and the production and conversion of hydrogen can be integrated with renewable energy systems. There are no NOx nor CO2 from fuel cells operating on hydrogen and oxygen, and because there are no moving parts, fuel cells are quiet and have a higher power-generation efficiency than turbine systems. It is estimated this technology is suitable for producing energy in 90 percent of the applications requiring energy worldwide. There are four major components in a typical fuel-cell system: a fuel processor to convert fossil fuel into hydrogen gas, a fuel cell stack where hydrogen gas and oxygen combine to produce DC power, a power-conditioning system to convert DC power into AC or DC power with the proper voltage and frequency, and an energy recovery system to take care of the excess heat (through cogeneration). R&D is underway for five technologies related to fuel cells: a phosphoric acid technology is already operating in various commercial buildings and can also be used in large vehicles such as buses and locomotives; molten carbonate plants are being demonstrated and have the potential for high fuel-to-electricity efficiency; solid oxide fuel cells are appropriate for high-power applications such as industries and electricity-generating and perhaps in smaller applications such as vehicles, where testing is underway; proton exchange membrane cells are suitable for transportation applications where quick startup is essential; and alkaline fuel cells, which have been used on many NASA missions, can achieve high power densities and generation efficiencies, but their costs must be reduced and operating flexibility improved to make them more commercially attractive. A Russian-American Fuel Cell Consortium (RAFCO) is carrying out research and development to overcome the technical barriers remaining to fuel cell commercialization (RAFCO 1997). For more information on RAFCO, contact Joe Rudolph of the U.S. Department of Energy, (505) 845-4414.