Manganese (Mn) ranks fourth (after iron, aluminum, and copper) in the amount of metals extracted annually for industrial use. Eight million tons are used in the steelmaking industry (about 5.5 kg per ton of steel produced) and manganese dioxide is used in the dry-batteries industry. Manganese is crucial to steelmaking because of its ability to combine with sulfur and its deoxidation capacity (International Manganese Institute 1996). All steels contain some manganese to increase hardness and scavenge oxygen and sulfur impurities that would induce defects and consequent brittleness in steel. Manganese ore is first converted to a metallic alloy with iron known as ferromanganese (which is 80 percent manganese).. Ferromanganese has a significantly lower boiling point than pure manganese and, therefore, is more readily dissolved in molten iron for steel production. The demand for ferromanganese by the U.S. steel industry is so great that approximately 95 percent of mined manganese ores are converted to ferromanganese. Manganese is also used in aluminum production to enhance corrosion resistance of aluminum products, from autos to soft-drink cans. Four countries supply most of the manganese to industrialized countries: Australia, Brazil, Gabon, and RSA Manganese Institute 1996).
Manufacturing (SIC 20 - 39).
The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System, upon which much of the statistical data collected by the U.S. Government is based, defines the manufacturing sector as those establishments engaged in the mechanical or chemical transformation of materials or substances into new products. These establishments are usually described as plants, factories, or mills and characteristically use power-driven machines and materials-handling equipment. Establishments engaged in assembling components of manufactured products are also considered in the manufacturing sector if the new product is neither a structure nor other fixed improvement. Also included in this category is the blending of materials, such as lubricating oils, plastics resins, or liquors (OMB 1987). Table M-1 provides statistics on the manufacturing sector as a whole.
Goods produced by the U.S. manufacturing sector are sold in both domestic markets and abroad. Throughout the 1970s, the United States had a positive balance of trade in manufactured goods, a key indicator of competitiveness. Every year since 1982, however, imports have substantially exceeded exports. This trend peaked in 1987, when the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar was reduced vis-a-vis foreign currencies. Although the trade deficit has declined, it is still almost double that of ten years earlier.
While the trade deficit is indicative of the decline in the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, it does not explain the underlying causes, and why some industries maintain strong positive trade balances (e.g., chemicals). The situation has been attributed to many factors: capital costs and availability of funds, tax policies and structure, tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade, lack of R&D, slow adoption of research results, infringements on intellectual property rates by foreign trading partners, under-investment in plant and equipment, movement of plants overseas, and labor costs.
Although many factors have contributed to the U.S. merchandise trade deficit, one important factor is the nation's relatively inefficient use of energy. Statistics show that the United States is still less energy efficient than its competitors despite gains in energy conservation and efficiency since the 1970s. Another important factor is technology development and adoption. A major study by the Department of Commerce several years ago identified four major technological areas that were deemed essential to economic competitiveness as well as national security. In all four of these categories (materials, electronics and information systems, manufacturing systems, and life sciences) U.S. technology was shown to be lagging behind Japan in terms of development. However, in the 1996 Third Biennial National Critical Technologies Review, the United States had gained a leading position or was on a par with other nations with reference to technologies in most areas within the seven categories summarized (Energy, Environmental Quality, Information and Communication, Living Systems, Materials, Manufacturing, and Transportation). At the same time, the report called for continued U.S. investment in technological development. A copy of the Third Biennial National Critical Technologies Review is available on the Internet at www.wuacc.edu/classes/hn/hn203/critical.tech.html. In general, the factors affecting the competitiveness of U.S. industries are highly specific to the individual industries, and more information about these issues may be found in the entries for specific industrial sectors.
Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS).
The Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) is conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to collect data about the consumption of energy in the U.S. manufacturing sector. Results of the survey are used by EIA to construct statistics about the consumption of energy at the industry level. From the manufacturing sector, EIA reports on energy consumption, use of energy, direct cost of energy, relationship between energy and manufacturing operations, energy storage, components of electricity consumption, capability of industry to switch to an alternative fuel, energy management activities and demand-side management, and presence of energy-efficient technologies at manufacturing sites. The survey has been conducted every three years since 1985; statistics from the most recent survey in 1994 will be publicly available in 1997 (DOE 1992e, 1994h).
Market Penetration (see also Appendix A).
Market penetration is a function of the economics of an individual technology and the innovativeness a particular industry. It is based upon the total market available to the technology in the particular year 2010 and the ability of the new technology to penetrate that market. In principle, to get a realistic estimate of market penetration the following factors must be taken into account (see DOC 1993b, DOE 1990a).
In some cases, all the above factors may not be considered. For example, in a niche industry, when the company involved in the project has 90 percent of the world market, market penetration 90 percent may not be unreasonable. In most cases, however, a more sophisticated estimate is required. Even in the 90 percent penetration case, economic growth must be factored in to calculate the number of plants or units in use by 2010. More information is available in Appendix A, Economics of Project Analysis.
Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) (see also Clean Water Act).
The maximum contaminant level is the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to any user of a public water system. MCL is defined in the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-523) and its latest amendment, P.L. 104-182, Section 1401 (4)(A)(I), 1996.
MCLs (see Maximum Contaminant Levels).
Metal Casting (SIC 332 and 336).
Metal casting consists of using a variety of metals and casting processes to pour or inject molten metal into a mold, cool it until it solidifies, and release it from the mold. The industrial processes involved in metal castingmelting, molding, and heat treatingare very energy-intensive. Metal casting is crucial to many other industries: 90 percent of all manufactured goods require castings, and 100 percent of manufacturing machinery relies on castings.
All of the following terms are associated with metal casting and are defined within this document: Centrifugal casting, Core binder, Corebox, Crucible, Cupola, Dendrite, Die casting, Directional solidification, Foundries, Gate, Green sand, Hearth, Inoculation, Investment molding, Resin-coated sand, Reverbatory furnace, Riser, Riser gating, Runner, Sand casting, Sand reclaimer, Slurry casting, Sprue, Vacuum degassing, Vacuum melting, Vacuum refining, and Veining.
Table M-2 is a statistical profile of the metalcasting industry for SIC 332.
Methane (see also Global Climate Change).
Methane (CH4) is the principal component of natural gas and is also produced through a variety of human activities and naturally occurring sources. Methane is a greenhouse gas and is suspected of contributing to global climate change along with other gases (e.g., carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons). Table M-3 summarizes the principal human (anthropogenic) and natural activities that generate methane (values have an accuracy of +/- 50 percent). Based upon limited published information, industrial methane emissions are currently estimated at roughly 1.29x109 lbs/yr. For more information on methane production and how to estimate emissions of methane from made-man sources, a good source is Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States, 1995 (DOE 1996b). The combustion energy of methane is 212,800 calories/g mole.
A microbe is a living single-cell organism, capable of reproduction. Microbes or microorganisms are sometimes used in the biotechnology industry, and may require enzymes and other specialized handling (Milne, Brennan, and Glenn 1990).
Table M-3. Sources of Methane
Mining Industry (SIC 10, 12, 13, and 14).
The mining sector includes four sub-industries: mineral and metal mining, coal mining, oil and gas extraction, and non-metallic minerals. The term mining is used in the broad sense to describe the extraction of minerals that occur naturally, including solids (coal and ores), liquids (crude petroleum), and gases (natural gas). Crushing, grinding, or otherwise preparing clays and ceramics and miscellaneous non-metallic minerals are addressed under SIC 32 as part of the stone, clay, and glass sector. For all mining industries, environmental concerns and regulatory compliance issues now influence a widening range of activities. Table M-4 summarizes statistics for U.S. mining activities.
Molasses is a thick brownish syrup obtained as a by-product from cane sugar manufacturing. Centrifuges separate the cane molasses from the sugar crystals in a series of steps. Two
types of extractions exist: light molasses and dark molasses, or black strap. The light extract is made up of 65 percent carbohydrates, 24 percent water, and the remainder being ash (DOE 1986). The dark extract contains 55 percent carbohydrates, 24 percent water, and the remainder is ash, vitamins, and minerals.
Molecular Weight (see also Element, Compound).
The molecular weight of an element or compound is based on its atomic structure. Thus, the molecular weight is the sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in the molecule. The molecular weights of some of the common elements and compounds mentioned in this handbook are provided in Table M-5.
The Montreal Protocol of 1987 (see also Chlorofluorocarbons, Global Climate Change, Ozone Layer Depletion).
The "Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer" took measures to protect the ozone layer from depletion by emissions of certain substances. In particular, it established a control schedule for phasing out the production and use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by the year 2000. U.S. law requires that, after 1995, any products made with CFCs be so labeled. Because of the short time scale, finding a replacement for CFCs is among the most aggressively pursued research areas for CFC-dependent industries. (The primary uses of CFCs are as refrigerants and solvents.)